eOceans was founded with the belief that future oceans can teem with life, and be radically more exciting and valuable than they are today, if we make faster and more collaborative discoveries. For the Oceans. For Us.


By crowdsourcing insights from ocean explorers - like divers, snorkelers, fishers, surfers, sailors, and researchers - eOceans rapidly expands our knowledge of marine ecosystems. We unravel essential ecological, social, economic, and management issues affecting our oceans today.

eOceans is actively building a platform to help ocean researchers make real-time discoveries by reducing the time needed for data processing and analytics, collaboration, and to easily crowdsource data. Our goal is real-time ocean discoveries that keep pace with business, society, and the oceans.

Citizen Science


eOceans combines the observations and experiences of the global community of ocean explorers to address real-world questions. 

We completed a comprehensive investigation on the value of recreational scuba divers observations to describe marine animal populations, and have combined citizen science data with other information to fill important data gaps. 

We have used event-based censuses (e.g., where every observation is recorded) to describe:

And, one-off interview-style surveys to describe:

Our results have influenced policy and management, including:

Sharks and Rays


Sharks, rays, skates, and sawfish (Elasmobranchs), are an extremely diverse group fish. Therefore, it is impossible to make blanket statements about their value. However, studies have shown that sharks keep other populations in check, remove weak or sick individuals, shift prey habitat, and balance ecosystems. 

Sharks are also important for humans for food, tourism, and intrinsic value.

eOceans' research has engaged professional researchers and citizen scientists to document shark and ray populations – describing contemporary and historic baselines, identifying population risks, and understanding conservation needs.

Findings have included:

Note: The paper investigating inverted biomass pyramids, above, is often mis-cited. This is about scientific divers, and the fact that they count fish that enter their transect AFTER the survey starts, therefore inflating the density of mobile fish compared to that of stationary fish. Faster fish are more likely to enter the transect than stationary or slow fish, and therefore more bias of faster fish (top of the ecosystem). 

We also contributed a chapter on the role of citizen science when conducting shark diving expeditions:

Our works has resulted in significant policy outcomes, including:

Coral Reefs


Coral reefs are spectacularly important living structures. For example, they protect coastal communities from storm surge & erosion, provide habitat & refuge to animals, supply food to humans, offer valuable economic services (e.g., tourism), & supply numerous invaluable benefits, like carbon sequestration & nutrient cycling. 

Coral reefs are fragile and gravely threatened. Many coral reefs have suffered more than 90% coral death in the last couple decades, with very high death rates in 2017.

Threats to corals include nutrient pollution (e.g., farms, human waste), temperature rise, ocean acidification, habitat degradation, aquaculture, sediment loading, invasive species, overfishing, bomb and cyanide fishing, aquarium trade, and African dust carrying disease causing bacteria.  

The film, Chasing Coral, nicely documents the impact of climate change causing coral bleaching and death, and also highlights the need for ocean explorers to share their observations. 

eOceans' researchers efforts have discovered that:

Marine Affairs


Management, through policies and laws, govern human uses and impacts on marine ecosystems. These strategies can be used for conservation, to protect and preserve ocean ecosystems. However, management decisions typically weigh societal and economic activities with ecosystem needs, and therefore do not necessarily protect ecosystems from decline or promote recovery.

Therefore, evaluating the success of different management strategies is difficult. 

eOceans has reviewed and evaluated various management strategies. By collaborating with renowned researchers and local experts (e.g., dive instructors), and combining various data sources (e.g, fisheries data), we have amplified the power of Citizen Science to answer relevant and timely questions. 

We have found: