Who We Are

eOceans aims to unite the global community of ocean explorers to create the world’s most versatile marine database to be used for science and policy. We amplify our collective experiences. For the Oceans. For Us.


By crowdsourcing insights from the community of ocean explorers - like divers, snorkelers, fishers, surfers, sailors, and researchers - eOceans rapidly expands our knowledge of marine ecosystems. We unravel essential ecological, social, economic, and management issues affecting our oceans today. To date, our focus has been on: i) Citizen Science, ii) Sharks and Rays, iii) Coral Reefs, and iv) Marine Affairs. We can do so much more if we work together. eOceans was created by divers and researchers, and we follow policies that support communities who rely on healthy oceans. 

Citizen Science


eOceans combines the observations and experiences of the global community of ocean explorers to address real-world questions. 

We completed a comprehensive investigation on the value of recreational scuba divers observations to describe marine animal populations, and have combined citizen science data with other information to fill important data gaps. 

We have used event-based censuses (e.g., where every observation is recorded) to describe:

And, one-off interview-style surveys to describe:

Our results have influenced policy and management, including:

Sharks and Rays


Sharks, rays, skates, and sawfish (Elasmobranchs), are an extremely diverse group fish. Therefore, it is impossible to make blanket statements about their value. However, studies have shown that sharks keep other populations in check, remove weak or sick individuals, shift prey habitat, and balance ecosystems. 

Sharks are also important for humans for food, tourism, and intrinsic value.

eOceans' research has engaged professional researchers and citizen scientists to document shark and ray populations – describing contemporary and historic baselines, identifying population risks, and understanding conservation needs.

Findings have included:

Note: The paper investigating inverted biomass pyramids, above, is often mis-cited. This is about scientific divers, and the fact that they count fish that enter their transect AFTER the survey starts, therefore inflating the density of mobile fish compared to that of stationary fish. Faster fish are more likely to enter the transect than stationary or slow fish, and therefore more bias of faster fish (top of the ecosystem). 

We also contributed a chapter on the role of citizen science when conducting shark diving expeditions:

Our works has resulted in significant policy outcomes, including:

Coral Reefs


Coral reefs are spectacularly important living structures. For example, they protect coastal communities from storm surge & erosion, provide habitat & refuge to animals, supply food to humans, offer valuable economic services (e.g., tourism), & supply numerous invaluable benefits, like carbon sequestration & nutrient cycling. 

Coral reefs are fragile and gravely threatened. Many coral reefs have suffered more than 90% coral death in the last couple decades, with very high death rates in 2017.

Threats to corals include nutrient pollution (e.g., farms, human waste), temperature rise, ocean acidification, habitat degradation, aquaculture, sediment loading, invasive species, overfishing, bomb and cyanide fishing, aquarium trade, and African dust carrying disease causing bacteria.  

The film, Chasing Coral, nicely documents the impact of climate change causing coral bleaching and death, and also highlights the need for ocean explorers to share their observations. 

eOceans' researchers efforts have discovered that:

Marine Affairs


Management, through policies and laws, govern human uses and impacts on marine ecosystems. These strategies can be used for conservation, to protect and preserve ocean ecosystems. However, management decisions typically weigh societal and economic activities with ecosystem needs, and therefore do not necessarily protect ecosystems from decline or promote recovery.

Therefore, evaluating the success of different management strategies is difficult. 

eOceans has reviewed and evaluated various management strategies. By collaborating with renowned researchers and local experts (e.g., dive instructors), and combining various data sources (e.g, fisheries data), we have amplified the power of Citizen Science to answer relevant and timely questions. 

We have found: 


eOceans has a few policies that help us navigate what we do. These policies make us unique, and protect us, our clients, and the ocean.


We aim to provide science-based advice. We do not advocate for, or against, any specific management strategy. We believe that these decisions are best made by those who are most intimately connected.  


We aim to maximize efficiency – to protect our time and yours. We commit to improving our data collection and sharing systems, so that our users spend the least amount of time reporting, and the most amount of time exploring, with maximum impact for science and conservation. We are striving to make our data collection system fun and effortless.

Protecting special species and places

We commit to protecting the location of species and special places. We provide only generalized summaries that follow best practices for species at risk. We will not post the exact location of any sightings on social media or in any publication. We will not sell the data to those who wish to use it for resource extraction.


We are independent and unaffiliated with any particular organization, government, or funder. This puts us in a unique position to be highly collaborative, and to work across political, geographic, and institutional boundaries. Being independent also allows us to build and maintain networks and communities beyond the lifecycle of any one project, government, or organizational interest.